Latest version published by FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands on Nov 14, 2019 FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands

Observations of vascular plants by botanists between 1902 and 1950 and a small number of published records and specimen data. Data have been collected in 1.3 x 1.01 km grid squares. The entire country of the Netherlands was surveyed.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 2,626,773 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 2,626,773 records in English (190 MB) - Update frequency: as needed
Metadata as an EML file download in English (11 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (11 KB)


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Sparrius, L., J. van Heeswijk, G.M. Dirkse & M.J.J.M. Verhofstad (2019): FLORIVON. v11.6. FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands. Dataset/Occurrence. http://www.verspreidingsatlas.nl:8085/ipt/resource?r=florivon&v=11.6


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 20e3fcbb-c285-49ee-a93d-cc6ccd06ca9e.  FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.


Occurrence; Observation


Who created the resource:

Laurens Sparrius
database administrator
FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands Toernooiveld 1 6525 ED Nijmegen NL

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Laurens Sparrius
database administrator
FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands Toernooiveld 1 6525 ED Nijmegen NL

Who filled in the metadata:

Laurens Sparrius
database administrator
FLORON Plant Conservation Netherlands Toernooiveld 1 6525 ED Nijmegen NL

Geographic Coverage

The Netherlands

Bounding Coordinates South West [50.65, 3.23], North East [53.61, 7.3]

Taxonomic Coverage

All vascular plants

Kingdom  Plantae (Plants)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1835-01-01 / 1953-12-31

Project Data

Between 1902 and 1950, a survey of the flora of the Netherlands was made by a large number of (volunteer) botanists using. Field notes and checklists have been published only at a coarse scale of 5x5 km squares in the Atlas Nederlands Flora (1980-1989). Between 1989 and 1991, the Atlas data (5x5 km) has been digitized. Between 2004 and 2018, the filed notes, field checklists, and literature notes have been digitized completely, including all their notes, observer names and exact dates.

Title Digitizing FLORIVON
Funding NLBIF and Radboud University Nijmegen
Study Area Description The Netherlands
Design Description Sampling of grid squares (species lists)

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Laurens Sparrius
Joop van Heeswijk
Gerard Dirkse

Sampling Methods

During single visits of a half to one day all vascular plants were registered on a species list.

Study Extent The survey consisted of single visits of a half to one day in map squares of approximately 1.3 x 1.01 km until most of the country had been sampled.
Quality Control Older nomenclature has been converted to newer nomenclature (Heukels' flora 2005). Taxa that have been lumped in the past were split (where possible) if enough information has been provided, such as names used by well-known observers and their field notes. This has been done for e.g. Thymus serpyllum/pulegioides and Scrophularia auriculata s.l.

Method step description:

  1. Data entry using Turboveg with adapted taxon lists. Names en taxon numbers follow Prodromus Florae Batavae.
  2. Conversion of taxon names to currently accepted names. We use 'taxon combinations' if lumped taxa were recorded.
  3. Automated data validation against generalized distribution maps of the Atlas Nederlandse Flora, which is an edited abstraction of the current dataset. Further automated data validation using matches on bordering grid cells. Manual validation by an expert for 17427 remaining observations.
  4. Calculation of grid cell centroids and conversion to a MySQL database for publication in the IPT.

Collection Data

Collection Name FLORIVON Archive of Field Forms
Curatorial Units Count 56,138 +/- 479 field forms

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Sparrius LB, van Heeswijk J, Dirkse GM, Verhofstad MJJM (2019) The FLORIVON flora survey in the Netherlands between 1902 and 1950. PhytoKeys 135: 11-20. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.135.30069

Additional Metadata

Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Leiden) is hosting the physical archive with field forms and notes.

Purpose The data was collected for the publication of the Atlas Nederlandse Flora (published between 1980 and 1989). Data will now be used to complement the flora datasets maintained by FLORON in the National Database Flora and Fauna.
Maintenance Description Data is curated by FLORON in the NDFF Verspreidingsatlas (https://www.verspreidingatlas.nl/waarnemingen)
Alternative Identifiers 20e3fcbb-c285-49ee-a93d-cc6ccd06ca9e